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  1. (dectomax) is a veterinary drug approved by the food and drug administration (fda) for the treatment of parasites such as gastrointestinal roundworms, lungworms, eyeworms, grubs, sucking lice and mange mites in cattle.

    it is used for the treatment and control of internal parasitosis (gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematodes), ticks and mange (and other ectoparasites). doramectin is a derivative of ivermectin. similarly to other drugs of this family, it is produced by fermentation by selected strains of streptomyces avermitilis. its spectrum includes: haemonchus, ostertagia, trichostrongylus, cooperia, and oesophagostomum species and dictyocaulus viviparus, dermatobia hominis, boophilus microplus, and psoroptes bovis, among many other internal and external parasites. it is available as an injection and as a 5-mg/ml topical solution.

    doramectin is also marketed in many latin-american and some asia and africa countries as doramec l.a. (manufactured by agrovet market animal health) in a 1% doramectin long acting injectable solution for cattle, sheep, swine and others. its oleous carrier confers to doramec l.a. a slow and prolonged liberation, extending its action up to 42 days.

    doramectin is also available for horses as an oral, flavored, bioadhesive gel under the name doraquest l.a. oral gel. it can be used to control and treat internal parasites as roundworms, lungworms and some external parasites.

  2. milbemycin oxime (trade name interceptor, marketed by elanco) is a veterinary drug from the group of milbemycins, used as a broad spectrum antiparasitic. it is active against worms (anthelmintic) and mites (miticide).

    mechanism of action
    like avermectins, milbemycins are products of fermentation by streptomyces species. they have a similar mechanism of action, but a longer half-life than the avermectins. milbemycin oxime is produced by streptomyces hygroscopicus aureolacrimosus. it opens glutamate sensitive chloride channels in neurons and myocytes of invertebrates, leading to hyperpolarisation of these cells and blocking of signal transfer.

    uses
    milbemycin oxime is active against a broad spectrum of nematodes. its miticide spectrum includes sarcoptes and demodex. the drug is fda-approved for prevention of heartworm in dogs and cats, although it is less potent against heartworms than ivermectin.needed]

    the substance is often combined with other parasiticides to achieve a broader spectrum of action. such products include:

    milbemax and interceptor plus (with praziquantel)
    sentinel flavor tabs (with lufenuron)
    trifexis (with spinosad)
    nexgard spectra (with afoxolaner)
    the drug has been used in marine reef aquaria to control parasitic tegastidae copepod infestations on captive hard coral colonies. other arthropod invertebrates will be killed by the treatment.

  3. tacrolimus, sold under the brand names protopic and prograf among others, is an immunosuppressive drug. it is used after allogeneic organ transplant to lower the risk of organ rejection, and also as a topical medication in the treatment of t-cell-mediated diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. it also used for severe refractory uveitis after bone marrow transplants, exacerbations of minimal change disease, kimura’s disease, and the skin condition vitiligo, and it is used to treat dry eye syndrome in cats and dogs.

    tacrolimus inhibits calcineurin, which is involved in the production of interleukin-2, a molecule that promotes the development and proliferation of t cells, as part of the body’s learned (or adaptive) immune response.

    chemically, it is a macrolide lactone that was first discovered in 1987, from the fermentation broth of a japanese soil sample that contained the bacterium streptomyces tsukubaensis.

    medical uses
    organ transplantation
    it has similar immunosuppressive properties to ciclosporin, but is much more potent. immunosuppression with tacrolimus was associated with a significantly lower rate of acute rejection compared with ciclosporin-based immunosuppression (30.7% vs 46.4%) in one study. clinical outcome is better with tacrolimus than with ciclosporin during the first year of liver transplantation. long-term outcome has not been improved to the same extent. tacrolimus is normally prescribed as part of a post-transplant cocktail including steroids, mycophenolate, and il-2 receptor inhibitors such as basiliximab. dosages are titrated to target blood levels.

    ulcerative colitis
    in recent years,] tacrolimus has been used to suppress the inflammation associated with ulcerative colitis (uc), a form of inflammatory bowel disease. although almost exclusively used in trial cases only, tacrolimus has shown to be significantly effective in the suppression of flares of uc.

    skin

    tacrolimus 0.1% ointment
    see also: medications used in treatment of eczema
    as an ointment, tacrolimus is used in the treatment of eczema, in particular atopic dermatitis. it suppresses inflammation in a similar way to steroids, and is equally as effective as a mid-potency steroid. an important advantage of tacrolimus is that, unlike steroids, it does not cause skin thinning (atrophy), or other steroid related side effects.

    it is applied on the active lesions until they heal off, but may also be used continuously in low doses (twice a week), and applied to the thinner skin over the face and eyelids.needed] clinical trials of up to one year have been conducted. recently it has also been used to treat segmental vitiligo in children, especially in areas on the face.

    lupus nephritis

    tacrolimus has been shown to reduce the risk of serious infection while also increasing renal remission in lupus nephritis.

  4. posaconazole, sold under the brand names noxafil and posanol is a triazole antifungal medication.

    it was approved for medical use in the united states in september 2006, and is available as a generic medication.

    medical uses
    posaconazole is used to treat invasive aspergillus and candida and fungal infections caused by scedosporium and fusarium species, which may occur in immunocompromised patients. it is also used for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis (opc), including opc refractory to itraconazole and/or fluconazole therapy.

    it is also used to treat invasive infections by candida, mucor, and aspergillus species in severely immunocompromised patients.

    clinical evidence for its utility in treatment of invasive disease caused by fusarium species (fusariosis) is limited.

    it appears to be helpful in a mouse model of naegleriasis.

  5. posaconazole, sold under the brand names noxafil and posanol is a triazole antifungal medication.

    it was approved for medical use in the united states in september 2006, and is available as a generic medication.

    medical uses
    posaconazole is used to treat invasive aspergillus and candida and fungal infections caused by scedosporium and fusarium species, which may occur in immunocompromised patients. it is also used for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis (opc), including opc refractory to itraconazole and/or fluconazole therapy.

    it is also used to treat invasive infections by candida, mucor, and aspergillus species in severely immunocompromised patients.

    clinical evidence for its utility in treatment of invasive disease caused by fusarium species (fusariosis) is limited.

    it appears to be helpful in a mouse model of naegleriasis.

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